By D. Angermann, H. Drewes, M. Gerstl, R. Kelm, M. Krügel, B. Meisel (auth.), Prof. Dr. Fernando Sansò (eds.)
Every 4 years the foreign organization of Geodesy meets on the IUGG common meeting and this has consistently been an incredible occasion for IAG to make the purpose on the place are we going as geodesists either when it comes to medical construction in addition to by way of association. The court cases of IAG on the Sapporo 2003 normal meeting are the reflect of our clinical achievements, and, as Geodesy is a dwelling entity like several different technological know-how, lets say it's a technique to see the image of what we think of our box of purposes in addition to of theoretical speculations. allow us to study this element by way of what are: the item of our examine, the equipment we use, the overall medical effects we will be able to produce. • Our item: the following i want to exploit a pseudo-Helmert definition; the article of Geodesy is understanding the surfaces of the earth: the geometric floor by way of positioning and e.m. surveying, and the actual floor, i.e the gravity box, through land, marine or satellite tv for pc gravimetry, and their time diversifications. This "object" is of course interlaced with different actual houses of the earth either via deep methods affecting its floor and during the gravity box in any respect diverse scales from the worldwide to the nearby and native, the place such a lot engineering purposes take place.
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Additional resources for A Window on the Future of Geodesy: Proceedings of the International Association of Geodesy IAG General Assembly Sapporo, Japan June 30 – July 11, 2003
More stations are shown in Fig. 8. Generally, the variations in the Northern hemisphere have their maximum in summer or autumn, whereas for the Southern hemisphere stations the maximum phases occur in the first quarter of the year. The same behaviour can also be seen in the interstation distances. 18 Fig. 8. Amplitude and phase of radial variation of some IGS GPS stations. The direction of the arrow shows the time of the maximum phase and the size of the circle is the amplitude. We also studied the scale behaviour of the IGS GPS network solution.
Atmospheric phenomena on GPS observations. Air pressure variations cause a loading effect that can be up to 3-4 cm. Additionally, air mass and humidity changes affect the tropospheric path delay. These are not separable in the GPS observations. 7 i I Q1 m rt J. 1 * 4 \ 1 Fig. 11. (Top) Air pressure at Metsahovi [hPa] from September 2001 to July 2002. (Middle) Sea level [m] at the Helsinki tide gauge. (Bottom) IGS radial component [mm] of Metsahovi GPS station (black) and calculated vertical motion due to the loading (gray).
In this way a "loosely" constrained network is formed through the fixing of the IGS precise ephemeris. At the post processing stage the ITRF2000 coordinates of the IGS stations were motioned to the observation epoch by applying the appropriate velocity and these were then constrained in order that the vectors from the GPS estimation stage could be used to compute coordinates for the UK stations in ITRF2000. amplitudes of white noise (WN) and power-law noise (PLN) (Williams 2003). In geophysical monitoring where millimetre accuracy is required, it is important to mitigate against all error sources, For this reason, the final International GPS Service (IGS) precise ephemeris was used along with the L1/L2 ionospherically free observable.