By H. W. Woolhouse
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Extra resources for Advances in Botanical Research, Vol. 10
A full account of chromatophore structure is to be found in Remsen (1978). In purple bacteria the chromatophore membranes are extensions of the plasma membrane. , 1975). Chromatophores may form small vesicles attached to the plasma membrane, or long sacs extending from the plasma membrane, or they may form stacks of lamellae with no obvious connection with the plasma membrane. However in all cases the structure is vesicular, that is a membrane divides off an inside compartment (which, theoretically, should be connected to the outside of the organism) and an outside compartment, the cytoplasm.
Chloroplast structure shows greatest variation throughout the mrimir nhvla nf aloae. A t nresmt there i s no simnle formulation of the LIGHT HARVESTING PROCESSES IN ALGAE 31 principles governing this structural variation; evolutionary diversification appears to have arisen at an early stage (Section XII). The structure and rearrangement of chloroplasts within cells is undoubtedly related to lightharvesting but aside from phylogenetic affinities other constraints such as diffusion of inorganic carbon species, the concentration of carbon-fixing enzymes and the supply of ATP and NADPH influence structure (Raven, 1977,1978; Krause and Heber, 1976; Farquhar and Von Caemmerar, 1981; see Subsection F).
RuBP carboxylase exists either in soluble form or as polyhedral inclusions (Fuller, 1978), which presumably act as storage sites. However the suggestion has recently been made that these “carboxysomes” are primitive organelles which carry out the complete cycle of photosynthetic CO, fixation (Beudeker and Kuenen, 198 I). In Cyanobacteria, which carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, chromat- 32 A. W. D. LARKUM A N D JACK BARRETT ophores occur as folded sheets of thylakoids which have little obvious connection with the plasma membrane.