Analog VLSI: Circuits and Principles by Shih-Chii Liu, Jorg Kramer, Giacomo Indiveri, Tobias

By Shih-Chii Liu, Jorg Kramer, Giacomo Indiveri, Tobias Delbruck, Rodney Douglas

Neuromorphic engineers paintings to enhance the functionality of man-made platforms throughout the improvement of chips and structures that method info jointly utilizing essentially analog circuits. This booklet provides the vital thoughts required for the artistic and profitable layout of analog VLSI circuits. The dialogue is weighted towards novel circuits that emulate usual sign processing. in contrast to so much circuits in advertisement or business functions, those circuits function more often than not within the subthreshold or susceptible inversion sector. additionally, their performance isn't really constrained to linear operations, but additionally encompasses many fascinating nonlinear operations just like these happening in normal structures. subject matters contain equipment physics, linear and nonlinear circuit kinds, translinear circuits, photodetectors, floating-gate units, noise research, and approach know-how.

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N: . . : : : . : . : : . :: . 2 Physical structure of (a) an nFET and (b) a pFET in a common p- substrate. The pFET rests in a n-well within the substrate. (also called polysilicon or poly), which has low resistivity. We can view the transistor as having four terminals; the gate (G), the source (S), the drain (D), and the bulk (B). Because the n+ source and drain regions can supply a lot of Chapter 3 50 electrons to the channel, this device is called an n-channel MOSFET (nFET)4 .

Because the regions are n-type (doped with donors), the majority carriers are electrons. These regions have a low resistivity because of the heavy doping of donors. The region underneath the gate and between the source and drain regions is called the channel. The channel has a width W, and a length L. The minimum transistor length in modern-day MOSFET processes is approaching 0. 1 j,tm. ) The channel is insulated from the gate above by a layer of silicon dioxide (or gate oxide). This oxide is thinner than the other oxide (field oxide), which covers the rest of the substrate.

Sze (1981), Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Edition. © 1981 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. A reverse bias increases the potential step across the junction. The minority carrier concentrations, and the np products on both sides of the depletion region are decreased and therefore the recombination rate is decreased. The thermal generation rate now exceeds the recombination rate near the depletion region boundaries. This condition results in a small minority carrier gradient pointing away from the junction, and thus a small reverse diffusion current density occurs.

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